Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
site header image

ED 341: Cultural and Linguistic Diversity


Synthesis is the putting together of parts or elements so as to make up a complex whole; the combination of immaterial or abstract things, or of elements into an ideal or abstract whole...Also, the state of being put so together. (OED)

Synthesis Examples

Examples of Synthesis


For example, recess is a key time where these developmental processes take place (Adams-Blair & Oliver, 2011; Reeves, Miller, & Chavez, 2016; Reilly, Buskist & Gross, 2012).


ELL engagement can be increased by the use of diverse texts and media that are culturally relevant to students and authentic to their social lives (Choi, 2013; Devereaux et al., 2012; Herman et al., 2012; Kelly, 2011; Walsh et al., 2015).


Researchers place an emphasis on culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP) and critical pedagogy in relation to ELL instruction and the importance of connecting content to students’ cultures (Choi, 2013; Herman et al., 2012; Kelly, 2011).

*Examples are from last year's class.

Sample Synthesis Chart



Article 1

Article 2

Article 3

Article 4


Students struggle with vocab

Vocab is the hardest part for students

Scores are lowest in vocab

Vocab is intimidating


Reading words in context helps


Traditional memorization techniques are less effective than using words in context


Effectiveness of Memorization


Rote memorization is not effective

Students can memorize 10 words max at a time


Read short stories


Create Dialogs

Recommends no more than 10 words a day


Sample synthesis:

Vocabulary is a challenge for students (Author 1; Author 2; Author 3; Author 4). Traditional rote memorization techniques are not considered the most effective way to learn vocabulary (Author 2; Author 3), with Author 4 finding that students can only memorize 10 words at a time. Some studies have found that using or reading words in context helps with learning vocabulary (Author 1; Author 3).

Author 1 suggests reading short stories with students to build vocabulary. A similar strategy is presented by Author 3, who suggests creating dialogs to use with students. Both strategies use vocabulary in real-world situations to assist learning.

In-text Citations

Citations within your paper should include the author’s name and the date of publication. Specific quotes should also include page numbers, if they are available. The proper format is (Author’s Last Name, Year). If you give this information within the text of your paper, a parenthetical citation may be omitted.


(Author, Date; Author, Date; Author, Date)

(Author & Author, Date; Author, Date)

(Author, Author, & Author, Date; Author, Date)

(Author et al., Date; Author, Date)


Multiple Authors: Note that if there are multiple authors for a single article, you should list up to five authors in the first instance of the citation. After the first citation, if there are three or more authors, you may cite only the first author followed by “et al.” If there are more than five authors, you may use the first author and “et al.” for all in-text citations. If there is no author, use the first few words of the citation in the reference list, italicized if they are in italics, or in quotes if they are not.

Multiple Articles: Note that when you are citing multiple articles within the same sentence, the citation for each article should immediately follow the information cited. If there are multiple citations for the same information, the citations all go within the same parenthesis, separated by semicolons.