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Art 280: World Architecture

Chicago Manual of Style

The Chicago Manual of Style

The Chicago Manual of Style has two different systems of citation:

  • Notes and Bibliography
  • Author-Date

Most humanities courses use the notes and bibliography system, while the author-date system is common in the social sciences. If you aren't sure which you should be using, check with your professor! This guide will focus on the notes and bibliography system.


Chicago Style Notes & Bibliography System

“Notes” are in-text citations that are located either at the bottom of each page (footnotes) or at the end of the paper (endnotes). Notes are used every time a source is cited and are indicated with a superscript number in the text. The accompanying bibliography names each source once in an alphabetical list at the end of the paper.

Both the citation in the bibliography and the citation in the first note for each source are full citations; however, the formats for these citations are different. There is also a different format for notes that reference a source that has already been cited once. Some rules are the same for the citations in both notes and bibliographies, and some are different.


Selected Chicago Notes & Bibliography Examples

Notes on Notes
  • The first note should always contain a complete citation (example 1 below), subsequent notes may use the abbreviated form (example 2 below).
  • Subsequent notes that immediately follow a note from the same source and page may use "Ibid." as the full note (no quotation marks). If the source is the same, but the page is different, use "Ibid., page#."
  • Notes should ALWAYS be Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3....) NOT Roman (i, ii, iii...)


Example Citations

Print Book


1. FirstName LastName, Full Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), pages cited.

2. LastName, Shortened Title, pages cited.

1. Mary Roach, Packing for Mars: The Curious Science of Life in the Void (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2010), 63-65.

2. Roach, Packing for Mars, 149-150.


LastName, FirstName. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.

Roach, Mary. Packing for Mars: The Curious Science of Life in the Void. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2010.


Journal Article


1. FirstName LastName, "Full Article Title," Journal volume#, no. issue# (month year): pages cited, URL.

2. LastName, "Shortened Article Title," pages cited.

1. Elias Okon and Daniel Sudarsky, “Losing Stuff Down a Black Hole,” Foundations of Physics 48, no. 4 (April 2018): 419,

2. Okon and Sudarsky, "Losing Stuff," 422.


LastName, FirstName. "Title of Article." Journal Title volume#, no. issue#, (month year): page range. URL.

Okon, Elias, and Daniel Sudarsky. “Losing Stuff Down a Black Hole.” Foundations of Physics 48, no. 4 (April 2018): 411-428.




1. “Page Title,” Website Title, Name of Organization or Sponsor, date of last update/modification or access date, URL.

2. "Shortened Title."

1. “Night Sky Heritage,” Dark Sky, International Dark-Sky Association, accessed November 1, 2019, light-pollution/night-sky-heritage/.

2. "Night Sky Heritage."


Name of Organization or Sponsor. “Page Title.” Website Title. Date of last update/modification or access date. URL.

International Dark-Sky Association. “Night Sky Heritage.” Dark Sky. Accessed November 1, 2019. light-pollution/night-sky-heritage/.

Citing Images in Chicago Style

General Guidlines:

Images are cited within the paper as captions. See below for electronically accessed images: 

Fig. #. Author/Photographer/Artist: First and Last Name, Title of Work. Year, Medium, dimensions. The Work's Location. Available from: Website/Database Name, URL (accessed Month Day, Year). 

Example Citations:

Fig. 1. Zhao Meng Fu, Groom and Horse. 1296, Ink and Color on Paper, 11 7/8” x 17 1/8”. The Metroplitan Museum of Art. Available from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, (accessed January 16, 2017).

Grooms and Horses

Fig. 2. Frank Lloyd Wright, Fallingwater. 1934-37, Building. Bear Run, PA. Available from A Digital Archive of American Architecture, (accessed January 16, 2017).


Online Chicago Citation Examples

Print Chicago Citation Guides

** All the titles below are held on permanent reserve and may be requested at the reference desk.  Limited copies may also be available to check out. **