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BA 498: Research and Synthesis


Synthesis is the putting together of parts or elements so as to make up a complex whole; the combination of immaterial or abstract things, or of elements into an ideal or abstract whole...Also, the state of being put so together. (OED)

Sample Synthesis Chart



Article 1

Article 2

Article 3

Article 4


Students struggle with vocab

Vocab is the hardest part for students

Scores are lowest in vocab

Vocab is intimidating


Reading words in context helps


Traditional memorization techniques are less effective than using words in context


Effectiveness of Memorization


Rote memorization is not effective

Students can memorize 10 words max at a time


Read short stories


Create Dialogs

Recommends no more than 10 words a day


Sample synthesis:

Vocabulary is a challenge for students (Author 1; Author 2; Author 3; Author 4). Traditional rote memorization techniques are not considered the most effective way to learn vocabulary (Author 2; Author 3), with Author 4 finding that students can only memorize 10 words at a time. Some studies have found that using or reading words in context helps with learning vocabulary (Author 1; Author 3).

Author 1 suggests reading short stories with students to build vocabulary. A similar strategy is presented by Author 3, who suggests creating dialogs to use with students. Both strategies use vocabulary in real-world situations to assist learning.

In-text Citations: APA

Citations within a paper should include the author’s name and the date of publication. Specific quotes should also include page numbers, if they are available. The proper format is (Author’s Last Name, Year). If this information is already given within the text, it may be omitted from the parenthetical citation.


(Author, Date; Author, Date; Author, Date)

(Author & Author, Date; Author, Date)

(Author et al., Date; Author, Date)


Multiple Authors: If there are two authors for a single source, list both authors in each citation. If there are three or more authors, cite only the first author followed by “et al.” The last three examples above cite sources with multiple authors.

Multiple Sources: When citing multiple sources within the same sentence, the citation for each source should immediately follow the information cited. If there are multiple sources for the same information, the citations all go within the same parenthesis, where they are separated by semicolons and ordered alphabetically. The last two examples above cite multiple sources.

In-Class Exercise Articles

S1. Del Rowe, S. (2018, March). Disappearing content is marketing magic. CRM Magazine, 22(2), 34-37.

S2. Wodinsky, S. (2019, December 2). Has Instagram peaked? Adweek, 60(31), 4.

S3. Lontos, P. (2018). The do's and don'ts of social media marketing. American Salesman, 63(5), 18-21.

S4. Bailey, A. A., & Domrose, A. (2018). Social media influencers' effects in marketing communications: An initial exploration. Marketing Management Association Annual Conference Proceedings, 155-156.

S5. Dreier, T. (2018, Nov/Dec). Influencer marketing: Doing it wrong. Streaming Media, 15(8), 14.

S6. Del Rowe, S. (2018, Jan/Feb). Tapping into social's sphere of influence. CRM Magazine, 22(1), 26-30.