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ESL 111 English as a Second Language and American Culture

Writing and Citation Assistance


You can get help from a writing tutor at the Center for Student Success/Learning Services at E-town.

Writing Tutors are also in the High Library Sunday-Thursday 7-9 pm and are available on a drop-in basis.


Check out the Citation Research Guide.

Or, ask a librarian! Feel free to stop by the reference desk, email, call, or text with your question!

Online MLA Citation Examples

Online APA Citation Examples

Selected MLA Works Cited Examples

MLA Handbook (8th Edition)


Book with one author

Author's name: Last Name, First Name. Book Title (italicized). Publisher, year.

Sparks, Nicholas. The Best of Me. Grand Central Publishing, 2011.


Article from a database (e.g. Academic Search Ultimate) - For three or more authors

Author's Name(s): Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Journal Title (italicized), volume, issue, month year, page numbers. name of database (italicized), stable URL, (if none can be found use doi number)

Segal, Scott, et al. "Plagiarism in Residency Application Essays." Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 153, no. 2, July 2010, pp. 112-120. MEDLINE Complete, doi:10.7326/0003-4819-153-2-201007200-00007.



Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Page Title.” Name of Website, Publisher, Date, URL.

Howell, Elizabeth. “Exoplanets: Worlds Beyond Our Solar System.”, 30 Mar. 2018,


Selected APA References Examples

APA Manual 7th Edition


Print Book

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year). Book title. Publisher.

Roach, M. (2010). Packing for Mars: The curious science of life in the void. W. W. Norton.


Journal Article

Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, volume(issue), page-range. URL

Okon, E., & Sudarsky, D. (2018). Losing stuff down a black hole. Foundations of Physics, 48(4), 411-428.



Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Page title. Name of Website. URL

Howell, E. (2018, March 30). Exoplanets: Worlds beyond our solar system.


Chicago Manual of Style

The Chicago Manual of Style

The Chicago Manual of Style has two different systems of citation:

  • Notes and Bibliography
  • Author-Date

Most humanities courses use the notes and bibliography system, while the author-date system is common in the social sciences. If you aren't sure which you should be using, check with your professor! This guide will focus on the notes and bibliography system.


Chicago Style Notes & Bibliography System

“Notes” are in-text citations that are located either at the bottom of each page (footnotes) or at the end of the paper (endnotes). Notes are used every time a source is cited and are indicated with a superscript number in the text. The accompanying bibliography names each source once in an alphabetical list at the end of the paper.

Both the citation in the bibliography and the citation in the first note for each source are full citations; however, the formats for these citations are different. There is also a different format for notes that reference a source that has already been cited once. Some rules are the same for the citations in both notes and bibliographies, and some are different.


Selected Chicago Notes & Bibliography Examples

Notes on Notes
  • The first note should always contain a complete citation (example 1 below), subsequent notes may use the abbreviated form (example 2 below).
  • Subsequent notes that immediately follow a note from the same source and page may use "Ibid." as the full note (no quotation marks). If the source is the same, but the page is different, use "Ibid., page#."
  • Notes should ALWAYS be Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3....) NOT Roman (i, ii, iii...)


Example Citations

Print Book


1. FirstName LastName, Full Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), pages cited.

2. LastName, Shortened Title, pages cited.

1. Mary Roach, Packing for Mars: The Curious Science of Life in the Void (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2010), 63-65.

2. Roach, Packing for Mars, 149-150.


LastName, FirstName. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.

Roach, Mary. Packing for Mars: The Curious Science of Life in the Void. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2010.


Journal Article


1. FirstName LastName, "Full Article Title," Journal volume#, no. issue# (month year): pages cited, URL.

2. LastName, "Shortened Article Title," pages cited.

1. Elias Okon and Daniel Sudarsky, “Losing Stuff Down a Black Hole,” Foundations of Physics 48, no. 4 (April 2018): 419,

2. Okon and Sudarsky, "Losing Stuff," 422.


LastName, FirstName. "Title of Article." Journal Title volume#, no. issue#, (month year): page range. URL.

Okon, Elias, and Daniel Sudarsky. “Losing Stuff Down a Black Hole.” Foundations of Physics 48, no. 4 (April 2018): 411-428.




1. “Page Title,” Website Title, Name of Organization or Sponsor, date of last update/modification or access date, URL.

2. "Shortened Title."

1. “Night Sky Heritage,” Dark Sky, International Dark-Sky Association, accessed November 1, 2019, light-pollution/night-sky-heritage/.

2. "Night Sky Heritage."


Name of Organization or Sponsor. “Page Title.” Website Title. Date of last update/modification or access date. URL.

International Dark-Sky Association. “Night Sky Heritage.” Dark Sky. Accessed November 1, 2019. light-pollution/night-sky-heritage/.