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Education 341: Cultural and Linguistic Diversity


Synthesis is the putting together of parts or elements so as to make up a complex whole; the combination of immaterial or abstract things, or of elements into an ideal or abstract whole...Also, the state of being put so together. (OED)

Synthesis Examples

Examples of Synthesis


Example 1:

For example, recess is a key time where these developmental processes take place (Adams-Blair & Oliver, 2011; Reeves, Miller, & Chavez, 2016; Reilly, Buskist & Gross, 2012).


Example 2:

ELL engagement can be increased by the use of diverse texts and media that are culturally relevant to students and authentic to their social lives (Choi, 2013; Devereaux et al., 2012; Herman et al., 2012; Kelly, 2011; Walsh et al., 2015).


Example 3:

Researchers place an emphasis on culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP) and critical pedagogy in relation to ELL instruction and the importance of connecting content to students’ cultures (Choi, 2013; Herman et al., 2012; Kelly, 2011).


*Examples are from last year's class.

Sample Synthesis Chart



Article 1

Article 2

Article 3

Article 4


Students struggle with vocab

Vocab is the hardest part for students

Scores are lowest in vocab

Vocab is intimidating


Reading words in context helps


Traditional memorization techniques are less effective than using words in context


Effectiveness of Memorization


Rote memorization is not effective

Students can memorize 10 words max at a time


Read short stories


Create Dialogs

Recommends no more than 10 words a day


Sample synthesis:

Vocabulary is a challenge for students (Author 1, 2, 3, and 4). Traditional rote memorization techniques are not considered the most effective way to learn vocabulary (Author 2 and 3), with Author 4 finding that students can only memorize 10 words at a time. Some studies have found that using or reading words in context helps with learning vocabulary (Author 1, and 3).

Author 1 suggests reading short stories with students to build vocabulary. A similar strategy is presented by Author 3, who suggests creating dialogs to use with students. Both strategies use vocabulary in real-world situations to assist learning.