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FYS Game Theory: Applications in Strategic Thinking

What Are Primary Sources?

Primary sources are the raw materials of history - original documents and objects which were created at the time under study- or original research (experiments, scientific studies, surveys). They are different from secondary sources, accounts, interpretations, or criticism of primary sources or historical events.

-- Adapted from the Library of Congress

Primary Source Examples in the Humanities

  • Letters and diaries
  • Historical newspaper and magazine articles (factual accounts)
  • Government documents, laws, and records
  • Interviews and oral history
  • Creative works like music, painting, and literature
  • Photographs and recordings

Primary Source Examples in the Sciences

  • Articles reporting on original research--typically in peer-reviewed and scholarly journals
  • Results of scientific experiments and clinical trials--should typically include research methodology used

Secondary sources, like biographies, histories, and criticism, analyze and interpret primary sources.

Primary vs. Secondary Sources

What's the difference?

Watch this video to learn more!

Scholarly vs. Popular vs. Trade Publications

How can you tell the difference between SCHOLARLY JOURNAL ARTICLES, POPULAR NEWSPAPER AND MAGAZINE ARTICLES, and TRADE PUBLICATION MAGAZINES? Here is a table with some key differences.

 

SCHOLARLY

Image result for journal of education

POPULAR

Image result for time magazine

TRADE

Image result for OT practice magazine

CONTENT
  • Academic research
  • Academic reviews
  • Language is formal and can include field jargon
  • Articles are usually quite lengthy
  • Popular culture Info
  • Current events/ news
  • Language is usually more informal
  • Articles tend to be shorter
  • Industry/field news
  • Professional interest articles
  • Language is heavy on professional jargon though usually not as formal as a scholarly article
  • Articles are short
INTENDED AUDIENCE
  • Scholars
  • Researchers
  • Undergraduate/Graduate Students
  •  General public
  • Industry/Field Professionals 
REFERENCES/CITED SOURCES
  • Always listed and usually extensive
  • Scientific journals include original research info/data
  • Never (though sources are often quoted within the text)
  • Sometimes listed but not extensive research cited
AUTHOR/S
  • Scholars/Researchers  
  • Usually journalists
  • Sometimes scholars or professionals
  • Usually working professionals (teachers, therapists, etc.) 
  • Sometimes scholars within the field
REVIEW POLICY
  • "Peer-reviewed" by an editorial board of scholars in particular field
  • Editorial staff, usually made up of journalists
  • Editorial staff, usually made up of professionals
PICTURES/ADS
  • Most visuals are graphs or charts with data
  • Some will have a small picture or two but typically have none
  • Usually no or few ads
  • Frequently contain glossy ads 
  • Contain large and numerous pictures to accompany articles
  • Frequently contain advertisements and some pictures to accompany articles (though not as many as in a popular magazine or newspaper)
EXAMPLES
  • The American Journal of Psychology
  • The Journal of Asian Studies
  • Journal of Academic Librarianship
  • Occupational Therapy in Mental Health
  • Time
  • Rolling Stone
  • Scientific American
  • Consumer Reports
  • The New York Times
  • OT Practice Magazine
  • College and Research Libraries News
  • NEA (National Education Association) Today Magazine