The Chicago Manual of Style has two different systems of citation:
Most humanities courses use the notes and bibliography system, while the author-date system is common in the social sciences. If you aren't sure which you should be using, check with your professor! This guide will focus on the notes and bibliography system.
“Notes” are in-text citations that are located either at the bottom of each page (footnotes) or at the end of the paper (endnotes). Notes are used every time a source is cited and are indicated with a superscript number in the text. The accompanying bibliography names each source once in an alphabetical list at the end of the paper.
Both the citation in the bibliography and the citation in the first note for each source are full citations; however, the formats for these citations are different. There is also a different format for notes that reference a source that has already been cited once. Some rules are the same for the citations in both notes and bibliographies, and some are different.
1. FirstName LastName, Full Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), pages cited.
2. LastName, Shortened Title, pages cited.
1. Mary Roach, Packing for Mars: The Curious Science of Life in the Void (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2010), 63-65.
2. Roach, Packing for Mars, 149-150.
LastName, FirstName. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.
Roach, Mary. Packing for Mars: The Curious Science of Life in the Void. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2010.
1. FirstName LastName, "Full Article Title," Journal volume#, no. issue# (month year): pages cited, URL.
2. LastName, "Shortened Article Title," pages cited.
1. Elias Okon and Daniel Sudarsky, “Losing Stuff Down a Black Hole,” Foundations of Physics 48, no. 4 (April 2018): 419, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10701-018-0154-3.
2. Okon and Sudarsky, "Losing Stuff," 422.
LastName, FirstName. "Title of Article." Journal Title volume#, no. issue#, (month year): page range. URL.
Okon, Elias, and Daniel Sudarsky. “Losing Stuff Down a Black Hole.” Foundations of Physics 48, no. 4 (April 2018): 411-428. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10701-018-0154-3.
1. “Page Title,” Website Title, Name of Organization or Sponsor, date of last update/modification or access date, URL.
2. "Shortened Title."
1. “Night Sky Heritage,” Dark Sky, International Dark-Sky Association, accessed November 1, 2019, https://www.darksky.org/ light-pollution/night-sky-heritage/.
2. "Night Sky Heritage."
Name of Organization or Sponsor. “Page Title.” Website Title. Date of last update/modification or access date. URL.
International Dark-Sky Association. “Night Sky Heritage.” Dark Sky. Accessed November 1, 2019. https://www.darksky.org/ light-pollution/night-sky-heritage/.
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